Comment prendre de bonnes résolutions ? et sy tenir. (French Edition)
It is of course almost as difficult to judge delivery from a manuscript as to record it in writing. This kind of self-deprecation appears more frequently in the first speeches—in the exordia of Nos. The anti-rhetorical stance of the novice is also evident: in No.
Noteworthy are his arguing in No. Compare a passage from No. But it has usually been deemed sufficient to point to the British Constitution, and to beg the three following questions in relation to it: 1. Fine flourishes of the logical wand are seen in No. It may be observed, of course, that closing remarks are much better conceived on the spot, being most powerful when they take into account the past and future of the debate; probably Mill left them to the impulse of the moment, although there are some effective elements in the drafts.
One may instance a conciliatory note , a supplication to the uncommitted as well as to allies , and that favourite radical ploy an appeal to the inevitable future An unusual note is struck in No. Certainly where the speeches show him attempting to anticipate a reaction from his audience one must assume that he in fact modified his words ad hoc. Non-rational persuasion is, of course, present. In one place he uses a fable that he felt telling enough to be used almost without modification in print nine years later.
One can only guess at the background of his remark in No. Must we either renounce our virtues or our meals? Do they. Canning—if I were at this moment in his presence I would ask him. In such speeches we would not expect much evidence of the fairness or, in the judgment of those who are suspicious, the appearance of fairness for which Mill later strove, 85 although it is traditional in debating, of course, to make some claim to disinterest, even when the basis of the game is evident enough to all.
His major goal in these years, however, was the exposure and uprooting of error, and many will find the matter of his speeches more revealing than the manner.
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The basic judgments round which the earlier speeches are structured will quickly be recognized as those of the philosophic radical group. I dare him to the proof, but if by theory, he means general principles I agree with him. In all of this and there is much one might miss the independence of mind that becomes increasingly apparent. And, of course, it is not judicious to assume that agreement with his teachers and friends signals mere parroting; thought and discussion, even if directed down set channels, developed the powers that enabled Mill to originate, assess, and revise rather than merely adopt.
So it is, for instance, with his views on population in the debates with the Owenites; see especially his reference to the failure of the prudential check to operate in Ireland It is easy also to detect a new note in another of his arguments against the Owenites, when he objects to the Cooperative system because.
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I am not one of those, who set up liberty as an idol to be worshipped, and I am even willing to go farther than most people in regulating and controlling when there is a special advantage to be obtained by regulation and control. I presume, however, that no one will deny that there is a pleasure in enjoying perfect freedom of action; that to be controlled, even if it be for our own good, is in itself far from pleasant, and that other things being alike, it is infinitely better to attain a given end by leaving people to themselves than to attain the same end by controlling them.
It is delightful to man to be an independent being. And On Liberty seems even less far in the future in other passages. The good of mankind requires that it should be so. And he is certainly on his own when he asserts the importance of poetry to Edition: current; Page: [ xlii ] education, referring explicitly to his own need, the education of the feelings I have learned from Wordsworth that it is possible by dwelling on certain ideas to keep up a constant freshness in the emotions which objects excite and which else they would cease to excite as we grew older—to connect cheerful and joyous states of mind with almost every object, to make every thing speak to us of our own enjoyments or those of other sentient beings, and to multiply ourselves as it were in the enjoyments of other creatures: to make the good parts of human nature afford us more pleasure than the bad parts afford us pain—and to rid ourselves entirely of all feelings of hatred or scorn for our fellow creatures.
My own change since I thought life a perpetual struggle—how much more there is to aim at when we see that happiness may coexist with being stationary and does not require us to keep moving. We all know the power of early impressions over the human mind and how often the direction which they give, decides the whole character, the whole life of the man. The greatest men of every age, generally bear a family likeness to their contemporaries: the most splendid monuments of genius which literature can boast of, bear almost universally in a greater or less degree the stamp of their age.
Hints at the reassessment of his heritage are also seen when he conducts his defence of Bentham in No. Through the years when he was debating, Mill walked seemingly increasing distances daily, weekly, and during holidays. I passed most Sundays, throughout the year, in the country, taking long rural walks on that day even when residing in London. In fact, through his life, he went afoot and apace, though one must infer most of the activity from incidental and indirect evidence.
There are, however, extant journals of five early holiday tours, all but the last in mid-summer: Sussex July, ; Berkshire; Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Edition: current; Page: [ xliv ] and Surrey July, ; Yorkshire and the Lake District ca. On the last one, setting out alone, he was met by Sarah and John Austin for the main part. Neither destinations nor routes were by chance; internal evidence reveals consultation of guide books and maps.
That Mill took such tours is as unsurprising as it is commendable; his having kept records of them may appear to some both unexpected and unmeritorious. Also, unlike many similarly occupied in England, he gives little space to the weather. Rain is sometimes troublesome, though seldom sufficient to cancel excursions. As one would expect, flora including trees attract his notice, and even serve as the basis of comparison.
But the comparison is too humble, and does it injustice. His interest and confidence grew, so that by No. Towns and villages are in his narrative mainly places where inns are found and whence one can walk, but there is a sufficient account of their plans and leading features.
And observation is much more common than participation in local opportunities: one exception is immersion in the cold chalybeate water at Tunbridge Wells Mill was never one to seek promiscuous society, and there is here little about people. So far interest will take us in explanation of the journal keeping, but what of habit and use? As seen above, Mill was trained by his father to keep daily records when afoot and abroad, and it seems prima facie probable that these journals were kept primarily for his own use.
They are, like diaries and personal memoranda, utile in recording data for later consideration and reconsideration. His occasional rough illustrations seem to be designed as prods to recollection, and one may stretch a point to say that his reticences most notably the boating escapade with Cole at Edition: current; Page: [ xlvii ] may cover matters for which reminders were unnecessary and which were better left unrecorded. Field naturalists will be pleased with those entries recording botanical finds, where Mill is probably expanding entries in notebooks like those that exist for other excursions.
Other, sometimes tenuous, evidence suggests that Mill saw journal keeping as an exercise in composition, the goal being to record impressions and some events in a clear narrative form; doing so evidently meant writing the full account from jottings, for there is unmistakable evidence that he went over notes or a draft when composing the extant versions. I have since discovered that it [a ridge of high land] does lie just beyond Cobham. Practice made better, if not perfect. Mill increasingly founded aesthetic judgments on more fully considered grounds.
The implied audience is increasingly evident, subjective responses multiply, and metaphors appear.
PDF Comment prendre de bonnes résolutions ? et sy tenir. (French Edition)
His self-conscious training is most obvious in the frequent flourishes, a few of which may be quoted. In No.
Another personal use related to rhetorical practice is undeniable: Mill was developing his sensibilities through testing and training his perception. In the tradition, behind the natural forms lie the ideal ones, towards which a painter turns. The secret, I suspect, is, variety without tameness. This passage points to another desideratum. Were there a single house on its banks, its peculiar charm would be gone: it would be beautiful, but no longer Wastwater.
follow site All of the foregoing suggests that the journals were used for personal exploration and development. But, as suggested above, there is evidence that someone else was expected to read and profit from the final versions. Most of the other intimations of audience are muted, but seem not merely tokens of rhetorical practice. Some of these passages evolve into fuller descriptions, more lyrically conceived and in part executed. Later in the same journal there is direct instruction as to response as well as action:.
Now stand on the extreme verge of one of the rocks, and look down, you will see. Look to the left, and you will see.
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But now look rather to your right. The first! Since there has been a world, these breakers have succeeded one another uninterruptedly; and while there is a world they shall never cease. These remarks seem indeed to be directed at a specific audience, and if one recalls when Mill was first experiencing the love of a man for a woman, it seems not at all fanciful to think that the last two or three, and most surely No.
Mill is coy about the authorship of the article , though he must have known that it was by W. Fox, the editor, who had introduced Mill to the Taylors in and had been a contributor to the Westminster Review from its inception. It seems reasonable to assume that such a comment was intended for a close friend, and she is the most likely, particularly in the light of external evidence.
That tour concluded in the New Forest of Hampshire, where Mill gathered some flowers. Whatever uses Mill may have had in mind, there is no question that we can use the journals as evidence of biographical fact and as basis of inference about his behaviour and development. One of his frequent devices is comparison, which normally involves memory of past experience.
So little is documented about his early life and views that even the trivial takes on interest. Memories of France confirm the deep impression it had made upon him. The tone is valedictory and autumnal as Mill thinks much of death, both he and his wife being manifestly ill of pulmonary disease, and one recalls that this is the period when they planned together the work by which they wished to be remembered. For example, one Edition: current; Page: [ lv ] thinks of the Autobiography when one reads his condemnation of onesideness , or his account of the threat to a true picture of human relations that gossip poses by magnifying insignificant particulars And the eulogies of his wife in that work are here forecast when he mentions the value of vision , in his estimation one of her great qualities, and acknowledges his debt to her for enlarging his ideas and feelings, while regretting that she could not give him the same expansion in power of execution Without attempting to exhaust the intimations, it may be mentioned that On Liberty is suggested by the references to the deadliness of custom in the East and the difficulty of removing received opinions , as well as by the description of the progress of opinion as an uphill spiral , and the praise of freedom of expression Key matters in Utilitarianism appear: for instance, Mill presents the ideal of humanity as inspiring , , and insists on the vital necessity of considering the quality as well as the quantity of happiness, even using what became one of his famous comparisons, that between Socrates and a pig Perhaps most surprising is the amount of comment on religion, and especially on the hope of immortality for instance, and ; but one recalls that once again a later work, the Three Essays on Religion, was on their minds, and the strong smell of mortality was in their nostrils.
Finally, and less surprising, are his comments on sexual equality , to be manifested in many a speech and in The Subjection of Women. Because Mill matters to most people as a political philosopher and sage, such an effect is almost inevitable, and need not be regretted. But there is in the journals and speeches other matter with other messages.
Mill is revealed—not that he would like the term—as a social being, caught up in the excitement of youth, curious about his world, looking about rather than within, and responding to people as well as ideas. He shows, however, what none of those does in the same degree, an extraordinary intellectual sensitivity, almost unmarked by egocentricity.
The highest standards he set were for himself. While some of them have been published in the twentieth century, very few have appeared in scholarly form, and never in a comprehensive edition permitting comparison. It consists of a daily account, sent in batches with covering letters to his father. Mill first recorded the events of the major part of the trip in a notebook, which Anna J. Mill acquired from a London dealer in and willed to the St. Andrews University Library.
The second volume in that description probably was the notebook containing lecture notes on logic, which was included in the large portion of papers from that sale bought by the British Library of Political and Economic Science London School of Economics , and placed in its Mill-Taylor Collection.
It was a bundle containing thirty unprinted speeches delivered by John Stuart Mill to the London Debating Society in his own autograph—on which society and its value to him, see the Autobiography. You will find there what a change in him was produced by the reading of Wordsworth. I have the MS of a speech on Wordsworth in which all this is set out.