Auf dem Kirchhofe Op.105 No. 4 - Score
Look inside. Sheet music file Free Uploader Library. PDF, 3. PDF, This is an F major transposition of this song by Brahms - musicaneo has other, higher, versions in Bflat and C mainly for high voice, but, as ever, I champion the rights of altos and baritones :- The vocal range goes up to c and ends on a bottom F.
Arrangement for violin and string orchestra. ZIP, This product include full and parts score is a digital sheet music in PDF format. The music was composed by Brahms Johannes Brahms , Log in to post a comment. Arrangement for violin and string orchestra Arranged by Struck P. Simrock, c Notated music 1 item. Notated music Petrograd ; New York : W. Bessel, [?
Auf dem Kirchhofe, Op. 105/4
Schirmer, c Notated music Wien : Universal Edition, c Notated music Miami, Fla. Kalmus, [? Notated music Wien : Doblinger, c Notated music Boca Raton, Fla. Notated music Milano : Ricordi, , c Notated music Delmenhorst : [Hespos], c Example 7.
MTO Lau, Composing Declamation
Measures 28—29 repeat the last two poetic feet and mm. As my hypothetical version in Example 7 shows, the song could well have been written without the text repetition in mm. In a way, the NMCs from m. However, the omission of the ambiguous hyperbeat 3 found throughout the song and the newly established regular hypermetric pulsation from mm.
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Such motion is enhanced by the animato marking in m. But the return of the 4 6 meter that signals an awareness of reality see paragraph  again challenges the prevailing triple meter, suggesting that the future of the couple is uncertain. This uncertainty is also conveyed by the minor subdominant chord G minor in m. Example 8. The most obvious difference concerns the first line of each A section. In a way, the published version is more structured and less metrically uneven but it still manages to stretch and compress musical time in expressive ways.
Note that neither a mixed metric complex nor a hemiola would be possible if the NMCs had remained as 4 6 — 4 3 — 4 6 at the beginning of the fourth system in Example 8. In short, we see from this earlier sketch that Brahms consciously explored the use of NMCs to serve text expression—whether by changing declamatory pacing or highlighting different words and vowels—in addition to manipulating form, harmony, and phrase length. Audio Example 1.
Audio Example 2. By altering the tempo, the performers clearly delineate the onset and the end of the text repetition as well as the hypermetric expansion , so much so that the repeated text becomes another clearly articulated musical phrase. When approaching m. Fischer-Dieskau sings the first 4 6 meter line mm.
He then hurries into m. He makes an obvious crescendo into m. Fischer-Dieskau also rushes into m. This brings out the newly placed metrical accent and adds to the surface acceleration in the piano. Example 9. Songs with Type-2 NMCs. Example Depending on the poem, the transitions between the two notated meters are sometimes clear but sometimes not. These transitions are most obvious when they involve a Type-1 NMC, hypermetric irregularity, and grouping or displacement dissonance. However, an obvious change of note values, dynamics, or tempo markings, as well as the inclusion of a piano interlude, may also contribute to a clear transition between notated meters.
The presence of these transitions tends to be more noticeable if more of these criteria are met.
Inevitably, there is also some degree of interpretation involved. For the purposes of this article, I will focus on transitions that involve hypermetric irregularity and grouping or displacement dissonance. Other songs with less obvious transitions between NMCs generally involve texts with a dramatic narrative, especially those from a song-cycle-like collection. Example 10 shows excerpts of op. Throughout the song, different metric environments correspond to the different emotions of the protagonist as his mind travels back and forth through time.
In the following discussion, I first examine the elements that contribute to the quasi-symmetry—the form, the use of NMCs, and the tonal areas—and then continue to the elements that do not contribute to or even disrupt the symmetry—line 10 and the coda, for example. The square brackets in the example indicate the text repetitions that were added by Brahms.
The blue-colored lines are set in 4 6 meter as opposed to the black-colored lines, which are set in 4 9 meter. The poem is organized in a quasi-symmetrical manner. In the first and the last couplets, the protagonist reflects on his present physical discomfort and psychological distress. He then recalls the past with grief and nostalgia in the second quatrain, and the two couplets surrounding the second quatrain lines 3—4 and 9—10 initiate and conclude the fleeing memory.
In lines 3 and 4, he switches focus from himself to the moving trees that whisper about the past; in lines 9 and 10, he reveals his loss of youth, which signals a return to the present moment. In terms of poetic structure, the quasi-symmetry lies in the text repetition, which Brahms has underlined with sectional changes and meter changes.
The closing couplet is a reversed repeat of the opening one, creating a palindromic effect. Line 4 introduces the idea of the fleeing memory that is continued in lines 5—7 where the protagonist starts describing the past. In short, all of these text repetitions contribute to the melancholic and cyclic quality of the poem, with its depictions of the inevitability of aging and the inescapability of reality.
The repeated outer couplets form the outer A sections, both of which are set in G minor, with a triple meter of 4 9. Brahms recasts the very last poetic line in 4 6 meter, and the original tonic, G minor, turns into a G major chord and functions almost like a dominant, vaguely implying a C-minor tonic. This last repeated line acts as a Type-1 NMC that functions as a short coda for the purpose of deceleration. These lines initiate a chromatic tonal ascent, moving from G major to A major. Metric and tonal excursions, therefore, are the agents for traveling into and out of this symmetry.
Note that if Brahms had preserved the structure of the poetic stanzas in his setting, he most likely would have added a piano interlude between sections, separating the repeated lines musically, and perhaps also metrically with NMCs. These rests within a poetic line are absent in later sections but reappear in the coda. In mm. However, this energy is short-lived because the cyclic return of the first couplet ultimately slows down the declamation again. The outer A sections, for example, are tonally stable in the key of G minor, but accompanied by two rhythmically interlocking arpeggios that move in contrary motion between the two extremes of the keyboard another symmetry.
As a result the accompaniment does not settle in any register until the fourth measure—but even that stasis is disrupted by a moment of metric grouping dissonance: the syncopated D 7 chords suggest 2 3 meter. All syncopated chords and melodic fragments that suggest 2 3 meter are highlighted in red in Example The unsettling nature of the piano introduction evokes the rustling wind and murmuring trees in the poem. In the B section, the piano continues with a sense of disturbance. The displaced arpeggios turn into displaced block chords, and over the course of this section distant keys are juxtaposed.
Both pairs of repeated texts mm. However, the music associated with lines 6—7 mm. As the protagonist gets closer and closer to the past memory, the tonal center of the accompanying music ascends higher and higher. However, the transitional music—the descending line that forms another grouping dissonance in the piano in mm. Throughout the two B sections, Brahms indicates that the music should become nach und nach lebhafter gradually livelier , suggesting a faster tempo as the protagonist recalls both the joy and heartbreak of his past. The faster pacing maps onto the changing key areas and a more straightforward declamatory schema afforded by the shorter measures in 4 6 meter.
The series of syncopated dominant-functioning chords in mm. The downbeats of these implied 2 3 measures are displaced they arrive a quarter note too late , further disturbing the sense of metrical regularity. The surface vocal rhythm in mm. Placement of hypermetric downbeats in mm.
Lieder composed by Johannes Brahms
This change in texture suggests the light-headed protagonist recollecting his thoughts about the past. The juxtaposition of static chords in the music with the description of murmuring trees in the text also suggests the powerlessness of man in the face of nature and fate. Together with the later appearance of these chords in mm.
The Type-1 NMC in mm. The additional text repetition and ambiguous tonal center in this coda offset the symmetry discussed thus far. The double neighbor figure in m.
The same motivic gesture in mm. The text repetition in the coda mm. This stasis again freezes the temporal flow. The added rests in the middle of mm. The vocal line in mm. Not only does the declamatory schema of line 10 differ from the foregoing lines, but its tonal center B major departs from the symmetrical pattern discussed in paragraph .
The sudden shift to the relative major may seem odd at first. However, the syncopation and the sudden change to the major mode seem to suggest eagerness and yearning, as if the protagonist were fully aware of the irreversible fate but still indulges in false hope. The early entrance in mm.